Updated in 2563 : on 2019 : 12 : 17 : Memory : Memory and / or Storage ;

IFF Z-Distribution, dimensional ( 2 * 6) ... ; e.g. space's depth in (2 * 6) momentum;
IFF side-by-side, dimensional ( 2 * 5) in common, five; memory methods e.g. address, offsetting of detailed Val address, physical address, ref address, ... are all defined by Time e.g. 1 year is like unlimited memory and storage in the Internet, 1 month is like billing cycles of banking systems, 1 week is like 7 days, BD is almost 1 day if compare to DVD in few hours, CD has been standard 150 x of IDE (approx. 700 MB) doko WHERE 1.44 MB can keep 12-size default font's approx. 500 pages of information to print out

Approx; 156 memory & storage types / usages available to read: Also see: Bus Connector and Port;

Name Enhance able Portable Hardware; Software Remark   CCD Resolution Technology;
;;;       ;;;
4LCFC Yes (210) a.k.a. 40 < ro > 15x15, 23x23, ... ; 4 layered; both SQ mm and Rectangle mm^2; for GDC (Processor) processes ... ;
9801_AquaZCS Yes 99x99; SQ ones, a.k.a. squared ones; Bio Clock; for Gene Therapy System;
9801_Default Yes 99x99;
+R DL Recordable DVD-V only; till 2008;

NOT recordable *;DivX; *;jpeg; *;mp3; *;mpeg4; *;wma;

+R / +RW Recordable DVD-V only; till 2008;

NOT recordable *;DivX; *;jpeg; *;mp3; *;mpeg4; *;wma;

AG AND flash memory [www;hitachi;com / New / cnews / 050617.html ]; Multilevel cell technology; BL switch solves multilevel programming problems; Ordinary memory's a cell can hold 0 and 1; AG AND flash memory's a cell can hold 00; 01; 10; and 11; BL becomes local BL and global BL; Also see: NEC's duobinary; AG; Assist Gates ;
AMB Hardware In 2005; NEC's AMB can connect DDR2 533; 667; 800;
BD Blu-ray Disc; One of the optical disks; Also see: HD DUD; [www;ceatec;com; 2005]
BD-R Hardware In 2008; 25GB BD-R Blu-Ray disc are available as 2x speed; approx; 5 times bigger storage capacity than DVD;
Cache No; because of embedding No Hardware Processor oriented and embedded memory; Latches of processor are classified as L1; L2; L3; ;;; memories;
CAM memory In networking; router's memory with search functions for IPv6 internet generation; Also see: Hitachi
CD Disc compact disk; CD; CD-R (LG usage: (CLV) (ZCLV) (;;;)); CD ROM; CD RW; JPEG CD; MP3 CD; Video CD; SACD; WMA CD; ;;; ; Multi-session CD;
CD ROM No; because of constraint track Yes Disc Non-volatile; Storage; Commonly known as CD; (CD (R) (RW)); (Video (VCD) (SVCD));
CD-R / RW Disc Recordable *;DivX; *;jpeg; *;mp3; *;mpeg4; *;wma;

NOT recordable DVD-V; DVD-VR; ;;; ; 

CF; CompactFlash Yes; but higher density separate module needed Yes Hardware Non-volatile memory; Type I; II; ;;;; Compatibility with: Microdrive; Compact I / O card; Compact LAN card; Compact MODEM card; www;sandisk;com; Media card reader needed; Also see: Canon; Nikon;
CMOS RAM No; because of embedding No Hardware Also see: CCD; If RAM becomes CCD alike "converting light into electrical signals" and then computers must be classified into what kind of ;;; ;
CryptoStick Yes Hardware USB2 flash memory;
DDR Hardware

(DDR (PC2100 266MHz) (PC2700 333MHz) (PC3200 400MHz) (PC4000 500MHz)); Double Data Rate where 1 Data Out time in ns contains 2 data patterns;
DDR200 Memory bus speed: 200 MHz; PC 1600 chip; Support up to 1;6 Gbps bandwidth;
DDR266 Memory bus speed: 266 MHz; PC 2100 chip; Support up to 2;1 Gbps bandwidth;
DDR333 Memory bus speed: 333 MHz; PC 2700 chip; Support up to 2;7 Gbps bandwidth;
DDR SDRAM Yes;  but higher density separate module needed No Hardware DIMM; Double data rate memory;
DDR2 Hardware

(DDR2 (PC3200 400MHz) (PC3200 ECC 400MHz) (PC4200 533MHz) (PC4300 ECC 533MHz) (PC5400 667MHz) (800MHz) (;;;)); 1;8V; Also see: 3D transistor;
DDR2 Hardware In 2009, available modules via toshiba;direct;com; are DDR2-533Mhz; DDR2-667Mhz; DDR2-800Mhz;
DDR3 Hardware In 2007; 4 bit pre-fetched DDR2; 8 bit pre-fetched DDR3 data rates are in testing stage for frequency development;
DDR3 In 2009, available modules via toshiba;direct;com; is DDR3-1066Mhz;
DDR3-800; DDR3-1066; DDR3-1333 Hardware In 2008; 1;5V; SoDIMM for notebooks; RDIMM for servers; 1333Mbps is -1333; 1066Mbps is -1066; 800Mbps is -800; Also see: Samsung Semiconductor;
DDS Hardware Also see: (Media backup storage (SONY ((4mm (DDS (2) (3) (4)) (DAT72))) (8mm (Mammoth (1) (2) (AIT 1) (AIT 2) (AIT 3)) (DLT (IV) (Super)) (Travan (NS20) ))) (MAXELL (Ultrium (1) (2)) (Zip)) (SLR) );
DIMM Yes;  but higher density separate module needed No Hardware In common; SODIMM is for Notebook; (SODIMM (PC100 100MHz) (PC133 133MHz) (PC2100 266 MHz) (PC2700 333MHz));
DMA No; because it is algorithm No Software If necessary; attach to DMA's bus; or extend the algorithm;
DMVT No No Hardware and Software
DRAM       DRAM can hold 4 times more data than RAM; Also see: DRAM vs; SRAM;
DRAM; Synchronous Yes No Hardware SLDRAM AND RDRAM; also see: 1997 model memory tester from www;advantest;com;
DVD   Disc Digital Versatile Disc; In 2004; NEC manufactured 3G HD DVD;

In 2005; LG produces 2;4x OR 4x OR 8x OR 16x WRITE to DVD +R; 1x OR 2x OR 4x OR 8x WRITE to DVD -R; 2;4x OR 4x WRITE to DVD +RW; 1x OR 2x OR 4x WRITE to DVD -RW; 2x OR 3x OR 5x WRITE to DVD RAM; 4x OR 8x OR 16x WRITE to CD-R CLV; 24x OR 32x OR 40x WRITE to CD-R ZCLV; 4x OR 8x OR 10x WRITE to CD-RW CLV; 16x OR 24x WRITE to CD-RW ZCLV; READ varies depending on media type; Also see: LG's CD DVD spec; dual voltage disk;

DVD+R   Yes Disc In 2008; DVD9(8152MB); DVD5(4483MB); ;;; ; multi-session is for re-writable later;
DVD-R DL     Disc Recordable DVD-V; and DVD-VR only; till 2008;

NOT recordable *;DivX; *;jpeg; *;mp3; *;mpeg4; *;wma; till 2008;

DVD-R / RW     Disc Recordable DVD-V; DVD-VR; *;DivX; *;jpeg; *;mp3; *;mpeg4; till 2008;

NOT recordable *;wma; till 2008;

DVD RAM     Disc


Disc; manufactured by Panasonic; 2004; 4;7GB; Rewritable;
DVD-RAM       Recordable DVD-VR; *;DivX; *;jpeg; *;mp3; *;mpeg4; till 2008;

NOT recordable *;wma; DVD-V; till 2008;

DVD ROM No Yes Disc In 1996; DVD ROM; by red laser; high power semi-conductor; system was developed by Sharp; Commonly known as DVD; (DVD (+R) (-R) (+RW) (-RW)); MiniDVD;
DVMA No No Hardware and Software  
DVR       Recorder; Digital Video Recorder; DVR = DVD + VCR;
EAROM No No Hardware  
EDO Yes No Hardware Popular and commonly used memory in open architecture era of PC computing in 1980s and early 1990s; (EDO (60ns))
EDO DRAM Faster than DRAM;
EDO RAM Yes No Hardware Extended Data Out Random Access Memory; Faster than RAM; Triton chip-sets from Intel were designed to take advantage of EDO ROM;
EEMS No No Software Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification; 64 pages per frame;
EEPROM Yes Yes Hardware Electrically Erasable PROM; Serial Flash EEPROM; Also see: www;sanyo;com / semiconductors flash memory;
EMS No No Software Expanded Memory Specification; 4 pages per frame;
EPROM No Yes Hardware Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory; Only by ultraviolet light; It can be reprogrammed;
Extended Memory Yes No Hardware 16TB; SX6 super computer; NEC;
FCRAM www;toshiba;com; 2004; Network application; Better than DDR SDRAM; and HSSRAM;
FeRAM Yes No Hardware Ferroelectric RAM; Also see: smartSD;
Flash Memory No No Hardware In 1997; flash memory; built-in to assist 16 bit micro-controllers; by Sharp;
Flash Memory Yes Yes Hardware In 2004; TDK's GBDriver RA4 NAND flash memory controller [Approximate dimension: 0;8in x 0;8in x 0;2in] can control ((8GB memory) (CF2 CompactFlash compatible) (64Mb~16Gb NAND flash memory) (;;;)     ); Also see: www;tdk;co;jp; Non-volatile memory;
FlashBank Memory Yes Yes Hardware Sanyo's usage;
FlashSSD Hardware In 2007; samsungssd;com's FlashSSD; shock resistance; -25~85C; <24s system boot; >80MB / s WRITE; >100MB / s READ; 0;5W; ;;; ; For notebook computer;
FRAM Yes No Hardware Ferroelectric RAM;
HHD Hardware HHD; Hybrid Hard Drive; Also see: NOR Interface;
HSSRAM www;toshiba;com; 2004;
KanguruMicro Hardware USB flash memory;
LIM EMS No No Software
Low Power SDRAM; LP SDRAM www;toshiba;com; 2004;
Low Power SRAM; LP SRAM www;toshiba;com; 2004;
LTM Long Term Memory; Also see: STM;
Mask ROM No No Hardware Non-volatile memory; Also see: sharp-world;com / products / device / about / technology / flash-01;html; 2004;
Memory Stick Yes Yes Hardware Non-volatile memory; MagicGate; Media card reader needed; Also see: SONY;
Memory Stick Duo Also see: SONY;
Memory Stick Micro Hardware In 2005; Sony & Sandisk jointly develop Memory Stick Micro M2 format; 32G max storage; Interface;
Memory Stick Pro Hardware

Media card reader needed; Also see: SONY;
Memory Stick PRO-HG Duo        
Memory Stick Pro Duo        
MG Yes Yes
Microdrives Media card reader needed;
MicroSD Hardware External memory; used in GSM; In 2006; HDD Embedded > 8GB;
MMC; Multimedia Memory Card                     Hardware www;samsung;com; 2004; Media card reader needed;
MMCmicro Hardware External memory; used in CDMA;
MMU No No Hardware and Software
MRAM Yes No Hardware Magneto-resistive Random Access Memory;
MROM       Mask Read-only-memory;
Multi-format / multi-function non-volatile memory device       Multi-format / multi-function non-volatile reader / writer translator / converter are beyond a Myanmar's knowledge ;
NAND Flash       www;toshiba;com ; 2004; 300mm technology;
NOR Flash       www;toshiba;com ; 2004;
NUMA     Hardware Automatic detection by Oracle 10g; 2004;
Parameter RAM       Apple's CMOS RAM; maintained by battery;
PC Card ATA       www;toshiba;com ; 2004;
PCM       Phase Change Memory; 2008;
PCMCIA Yes No Hardware  
PCRAM     Hardware Phase Change RAM; EETIMES; July; 2007;
PLA       Embedded memory;
Portable mobile hard drive     Hardware Portable storage; In 2005; 40GB; 80GB; drives available; USB connection; No AC / DC adapter; Light weight design; Fingerprint authentication; Also see: www;lacie;com;
PRAM     Hardware Phase change Random Access Memory
PROM No No Hardware Programmable Read Only Memory; PROM can be categorized into 2 different types: such as EPROM and EEPROM;
PSEUDO SRAM       www;toshiba;com ; 2004;
PSRAM       www;toshiba;com ; 2004; Asynchronous;
QDR II SRAM       www;samsung;com; In 2004; world highest capacity SRAM is 72Mb; developed by Samsung; For network applications; Operate at 300MHz; FBGA;  
RAM Yes No Hardware In LSI's either gate-array or embedded array design; NEC classifies RAM into following categories: Compiled-type asynchronous 1 port; Compiled-type asynchronous 2 port[1W; and 1R]; Compiled-type RAM embedded synchronous 1 port; Compiled-type RAM embedded synchronous 2 ports; Compiled-type synchronous 1 port; Compiled-type synchronous 2 ports[1W; and 1R]; Compiled-type synchronous dual port; Bit-word fixed type with 1 port; Bit-word fixed type with 2 ports[1W; and 1R]; ;;; ; Random Access Memory;
RDIMM Hardware SoDIMM for notebook; RDIMM for server;
RDRAM Yes No Hardware Rambus by Motorola's C-5; (RDRAM (PC800 800MHz)); Support up to 3;2 Gbps bandwidth;
ReRAM Resistance Random Access Memory;
ROM; Read Only Memory No No Hardware In LSI's either gate-array or embedded array design; NEC classifies RAM into following categories: ROM synchronous; ROM asynchronous; Also see: RAM; Read Only Memory; Once write; data become permanent;
SAM Yes No Hardware and Software  
SATA Yes Yes Hardware 2;5" SATA; SFF and SAS are a hard disk drive storage type / usage;
Scratchpad RAM       Scratchpad Random Access Memory; CPU's memory; register alike;
SD     Hardware


www;toshiba;com; 2004; Also see: smartSD; Media card reader needed; Nikon; SD; Secure Digital;
SDHC memory card     Hardware Multi-use Terminal Cable;
SDXC memory card     Hardware Multi-use Terminal Cable; for still images; for movies;
SDRAM Yes No Hardware DIMM; SDRAM is less expensive than SSRAM; (SDRAM (PC66 66MHz) (PC100 100MHz) (PC133 133MHz)); Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory; Faster clock speed than DRAM; Burst technique provided DRAM predicts address of next memory location to be accessed;
SecureDigital Yes Yes Hardware Non-volatile memory;
SIMM Yes No Hardware SIMM; (SIMM (EDO) (Fast Page)); Single Inline Memory Module; SRAM were used to cache; Made of flip-flop;
SmartMedia; SM Yes Yes Hardware Non-volatile memory; www;toshiba;com; 2004; Media card reader needed;
smartSD Non-volatile FeRAM; Panasonic; 2004; (smartSD (SD) (Controller) (Antenna) (FeRAM) (;;;));
SODIMM Hardware DIMM; SoDIMM for notebook; RDIMM for server;
SONY Micro Vault Tiny No Yes Hardware In 2006; 1 ~ 4 GB; USB2 drive;
SRAM; Static RAM Yes No Hardware Also see: Motorola's C-5; BMU; (Toshiba ( SRAM ((High Speed Asynchronous SRAM) (High Speed Synchronous SRAM) (Low Power SRAM) (Pseudo SRAM)))); In 2004; Hitachi's SRAM cell is made of 4 FD-SOI; Also see: DRAM vs; SRAM;
SSRAM Yes No Hardware Synchronous SRAM; Also see: MMC / AMCC's nP* NPU
STM       Short Term Memory; Also see: LTM;
TIMM RAM 3 inline memory module; testing gravity dimension computer, Using manOR sen, working with basic in numerological dimension;
USB Yes Yes Hardware In 2006; USB2 flash memory can be stored up to 64GB; but 5000+USD for a little stick;
USB Credit Card Size Flash Drive No Yes Hardware In 2008; 32 / 64 / 128 / 256 / 512 MB drives; 1 / 2 / 4 GB drives; with 4 process poly-plastic layered color printing [also see: Mitsubishi] available by; www;siliconmaps;com;
USB 2 Bootable External Drive Yes Yes Hardware 4GB; PnP; MAC OS X; Win 2000; Win XP; Credit card size; Portable; in 2006 retail price < 100 USD; Also can use as external storage;
Virtual Memory Yes; but OS level system configuration needed No Hardware and Software A storage physical portion of hard disk is used to swap between physical memory and hard disk's storage; *;swp; *;tmp; ;;; files are commonly used; While processing; if physical memory does not have enough memory space; and then virtual memory is used;   
VRAM       Video Random Access Memory; Processor provided separated pins video circuitry; Used of VRAM enhanced faster video computing;
WRAM Yes No Software  
xD Picture Card Yes Yes Hardware Non-volatile memory; Also see: Fujifilm;
XDR DRAM     Hardware In 2005; Samsung produces world fastest XDR DRAM by 256MB modules; DRSL;
XiMeta NDAS     Hardware


Storage; NetDisk; 10 / 100; USB2;
XMS No No Software Extended Memory Specification; In a session; Windows' conventional memory; EMS; XMS and MS DOS DPMI memories are adjustable; Also see: Windows' properties;
Wide bandwidth DDR DRAM No No Hardware In 2006; 3;3 ~ 5 ns; 2;5 ~ 3;3 V due to SiO2 constraint; SCP stack; FBGA array; ;;; ; Memory IC; Also see: Etron;
WRAM       Windows Random Access Memory; In video adapter; WRAM was designed for repainting screen;

e.g. WHERE BL V (s) are recording into memory cells and WL control V (s) are requiring WHEN (@ if symbol, a.k.a. at) WHERE the memory cells;

In early age computing arena, memory was deployed volatile only, and memories were classified static or random;

Commonly; after year 2000 ; memory has been used both volatile and non-volatile [storage + memory]; "volatile only" means WHILE power is on, temporary memory storage space available to store / to keep / to retrieve / to process instructions, also see: assembly mnemonics ... , and WHILE power is off, those memory storage spaces become unavailable; "Non-volatile" means permanent AND temporary memory storage space available regardless of whether power is on or off; Sometime;

memory and storage are file system dependent AND independent;

(Overview of memory: (R / W memory OR RAM (DRAM) (SRAM))  (ROM (Mask ROM; also called Fuse ROM) (PROM (EPROM) (EEPROM)) (Flash Memory) (FRAM)));

IFF testing, add your define memory into above table; defining your own OEM module into above table by adding a row simply; automatic adjusting bus' speed, e.g. 1 second EDO RAM with 32 KB, e.g. 1 pico second TIMM with 8 TB, e.g. 2D green color iroRAM with 1 TB; your newly testing HARDWARE memory module, working with basic in numerological dimension;

After reading above table; notice that storage and memory cannot be separated; and they are similar to each other; But the following might be different:

( Storage (Slower (Read) (Write)) (Lesser cost) (Larger volume)                     )
( Memory (Faster (Read) (Write)) (Higher cost) (Smaller volume)                     )

CD vs; DVD; SONY Standard

in 2008; SONY DVD/CD Rewritable Drive's standard
Disc Read Write
8 cm CD yy yy
8 cm DVD yy  
12 cm CD yy yy
12 cm DVD yy yy
CD-DA 16x-CAV  
CD-DA DAE 48x-CAV2  
CD-R 48x-CAV2 48x-CAV2
CD-ROM 48x-CAV2  
CD-RW 40x-CAV 4x
CD-RW High Speed 40x-CAV 10x
CD-RW Ultra Speed 40x-CAV 24x-XCLV
CD-RW Ultra Speed Plus 40x-CAV 32x-ZCLV
DVD+R 4x 16x-CAV 4x
DVD+R 8x 16x-CAV 12x-CAV
DVD+R 16x 16x-CAV 20x-CAV
DVD+R Double Layer 2;4x 12x-CAV 4x
DVD+R Double Layer 8x 12x-CAV 10x-ZCLV
DVD+R Double Layer 16x 12x-CAV 12x-ZCLV
DVD+RW 12x-CAV 2;4x
DVD+RW 4x 12x-CAV 4x
DVD+RW High Speed 12x-CAV 8x-ZCLV
DVD-R 4x 16x-CAV 4x
DVD-R 8x 16x-CAV 12x-CAV
DVD-R 16x 16x-CAV 20x-CAV
DVD-R Dual Layer 4x 12x-CAV 4x
DVD-R Dual Layer 8x 12x-CAV 10x-ZCLV
DVD-R Dual Layer 12x 12x-CAV 12x-ZCLV
DVD-RW 2x 12x-CAV 2x
DVD-RW 4x 12x-CAV 4x
DVD-RW 6x 12x-CAV 6x
DVD-RAM 5x 5x 5x
DVD-RAM 12x 12x-PCAV 12x-PCAV
DVD-Video 6x-CAV  
 2 default is 40x; IFF Parallel Time testing; also see: 2V; V V; so called W; www; www; this DOMAIN; net; i;e; netsetup;




[www;hitachi;com / News / cnews / 050615; html]
  To maintain data; DRAM needs refresh operation periodically;  To maintain data; SRAM does not need refresh operation periodically;
  Each cell is made of 1 MOS AND 1 capacitor; To retain data; constant V AND Vth are used; 
Single cell: READ 1 binary data is 1 bit in 1 cell; 1 binary data is 1 bit in 1 cell;
Single cell: WRITE 1 OR 0;  
Twin cell 2 binary data are in 2 cell;  
Twin cell: READ 2 cell are read  
Twin cell: READ 3 times longer retention-time than single array;  
Twin cell: WRITE 1 AND 0;   

MRAM; Magnetic Random Access Memory's semiconductor layers; [EWEEK; 6 / 16 / 2003]

Electrode; top layer; Bit Line
Ferromagnetic layer
Tunneling insulator layer
Ferromagnetic layer
Coupling layer
Ferromagnetic layer
Anti ferromagnetic layer
Electrode; bottom layer

In 2004; non-volatile memory module sizes are: 128MB; 256MB; 512MB; 1GB; 2GB; 4GB; ;;; ; And common media format may varies OR just brand names may varies among non-volatile memories as CF I; CF II; FireWire pass-through front port; MemoryStick; MemoryStick Pro; MagicGate Memory Stick; MicroDrive; MMC; SD; SM; XD; and ;;; ;


Memory IC vs; System IC:

System IC; a chip; a controller; product specific chip; In common; not portable; not able to enhance; but "configurable" interface; On the other hand; memory IC; a chip; product unspecific chip; In common; portable; able to enhance; and "programmable" interface; In an era between PCB and FPC ;;; ; both memory IC and system IC can be built-in; embedded; ;;; ;


Memory usages     Also see: register map;

2010 OR 2554, SONY, LTO;

2008 ; NTSC Signal system: Panasonic disc standard are; either 8cm = 3" or 12cm = 5";

                    CD; CD-R / RW including CD-DA; DivX; HighMAT Level 2; JPEG; MPEG4; MP3; SVCD; VCD; and WMA; DivX is DivX video; DivX media files; DivX6; and its max contents are the same as MP3 [ therefore max; 4000 Mixed Contents with 400 groups: ]; HighMAT Level 2 is audio and image; JPEG is Exif Ver 2;1 JPEG Baseline files; and its picture resolutions vary between 160x120 ~ 6144x4096; MP3 is either MPEG-1 Layer 3; or MPEG-2 Layer 3; and both discs' maximum contents are 4000 audio; movie contents; and picture [a.k.a. Mixed Contents]; and both discs' maximum contents are 400 groups:; MPEG4 data can be recorded by Panasonic SD multi cameras; and MPEG4 data also can be recorded by standard chipset DVD recorders [ for example: ASF standard SD VIDEO specification; MPEG4 Simple Profile video system; G;726 audio system; ;;; ]; SVCD is IEC62107 standard; WMA Windows Media Audio version 9;0 L3; and its maximum contents are the same as MP3 [ therefore max; 4000 Mixed Contents with 400 groups: ];

                    +R DL is Video; +R/RW is also Video;

                    DVD is DVD-Video; and DVD is also DivX;

                    DVD-R is DivX; and DVD-R is also DVD-Video; and DVD-R is also DVD-VR [which exclude CPRM]; and DVD-R is also JPEG; and DVD-R is also MP3; and DVD-R is also MPEG4;

                    DVD-R DL is DVD-Video; and DVD-VR [exclude CPRM];

                    DVD-RAM is DivX; and DVD-RAM is also DVD-VR which excludes CPRM; and DVD-RAM is also JPEG; and DVD-RAM is also MP3; and DVD-RAM is also MPEG4;

                    DVD-RW is DivX; and DVD-RW is also DVD-Video; and DVD-RW is also DVD-VR [which exclude CPRM]; and DVD-RW is also JPEG; and DVD-RW is also MP3; and DVD-RW is also MPEG4;

2007 ; WIZnet Ethernet to Parallel ; 4KB internal EEPROM; 32KB external SRAM; 128KB programmable Flash ROM; ;;; ;




;MP3; Panasonic's referenced sampling frequencies are

            IFF CD-R/RW 8; 11;02; 12; 16; 22;05; 24; 32; 44;1; 48 kHz

            IFF DVD-R/RW a.k.a. DVD-R OR DVD-RW 11;02; 12; 22;05; 24; 44;1; 48 kHz

            IFF DVD-RAM 11;02; 12; 22;05; 24; 44;1; 48 kHz

            IFF with ID3 tag; some devices cannot play *;mp3;

;MPEG4; also see: ; ASF;



Application purposes: Cache / PDA; Digital camera; Game; ID card; Main memory; Memory card; Smart card; Solid state disk;

BL; Bit Line AND OR WL; Word Line; In memory cell; BL AND OR WL which means [2N where N bits addressed row] AND OR [2M where M bits addressed column] in 2D;

Block size; Page size;

Buffer: mostly use in programming; When using buffer; designers/engineers/programmers must make sure each buffer's storage limit [BoundedBuffer; buffer over run; buffer overflow; buffer underflow; ;;; ] ; In common; at heap; or at a run time; when a program needs temporary storage; threshold voltage must be referenced memory addresses as its needed buffers;

CD; in 2008; Signal system: NTSC's CD audio: 4 Hz ~ 20 kHz; NTSC's DVD (linear audio): 4 Hz ~ 22 kHz a.k.a. 48 kHz sampling AND 4 Hz ~ 44 kHz a.k.a. 96 kHz sampling;

Cell structure: 1T; 1 cell structure characteristics by 1 transistor [i;e; Flash]; 1T-1C; 1 cell structure characteristics by 1 transistor [i;e; DRAM]; 6T; 1 cell structure characteristics by 6 transistors [i;e; SRAM];

Cell density: High OR Low;

Cell type; Also see: type=exe;

Characteristics of memory as s in time vs; °C in temperature;

Cost; Also calculate: cost per bit;

CTA; ... ;

              C T A
            C T A ;
          C T A ;  
        C T A ;    
      C T A ;      
    C T A ;        
  C T A ;          
C T A ;            

CTA♯; CTL♯; ... ;

              C T L
            C T L ;
          C T L ;  
        C T L ;    
      C T L ;      
    C T L ;        
  C T L ;          
C T L ;            

CTA♯; CTL♯; RTL♯; ... ;

Data refresh operation: Require OR Not-require;

Data volatility: Yes OR No;

DDR2 vs; DDR3

Meta DDR Type
# of Bank 512Mb: 4bank 512Mb / 1Gb / 2Gb / 4Gb / 8Gb: 8bank
# of Bank 1Gb / 2Gb: 8bank  
Burst Length BL = 4     4bit prefetch BL = 4     8bit prefetch
Burst Length BL = 8     4bit prefetch BL = 8     8bit pretetch
Data rate -400     400Mbps -800     800Mbps
Data rate -800     800Mbps -1600     1600Mbps
Driver Calibration Off-Chip ZQ pin
Interface SSTL_18     1;8V s to S time SSTL_15     1;5V s to S time
ODT Yes Yes
Package BGA     60bga 4     60bga 8 BGA     78bga 4     78bga 8
Package BGA     84bga 16 BGA     96bga 16
Reset Not available Available
Source Sync; Bidirectional     full duplex Bidirectional     full duplex
Source Sync; single / diff ;option differential     default
System assumption 2slot     4load 2slot     4load
Vdd/Vddq 1;8V 1;5V
For further info;

www;samsung;com / global / business / semiconductor / products / dram / Products_DDR3SDRAM;html


Disc; if RPM increases without timing; disc(s) can explode; if 52x disc is at 150x test RPM may explode; Sometimes; configuring incorrectly of motherboard's multiplexer(s) can cause such explosion; 

Endurance: High OR Low;

GDDR3     GDDR4     GDDR5; also see: AMD; Intel; Nvidia; Qimonda; ;;; ;

Meta Memory Type; 2008~
Burst length 4 OR 8 8 8
Data clocking Synchronous RD Source AND  AND WR  Synchronous RD Source AND  AND WR  Synchronous CDR AND RD AND Source AND WR 
Data rate 1000MT / s ~ 2000MT / s 1600MT / s ~ 3200MT / s 3200MT / s ~ 5000MT / s
DRAM density 256Mb ~ 1Gb 512Mb 512Mb ~ 2Gb
DRAM PLL / DLL *;dll *;dll PLL OR *;dll
External V reg; supply not available to public not available to public VPP
I/O organization 32 32 16 AND 32
Interface training not available to public Controller: RD OR WR Controller: ADR OR RD OR WCK2CK OR WR
Interface training DRAM supported training protocol
Prefetch scheme 4bit 8bit 8bit
VDD / VDDQ 1;8V / 1;8V 1;5V / 1; 5V AND 1;8V / 1;8V 1;5V / 1; 5V
VREF vref vrefc   vrefd internal / external vrefc   internal / external vrefd
VREF level 0;7 VDDQ 0;7 VDDQ 0;7 VDDQ OR 0;5 VDDQ
IFF keyword; context sensitive; e;g; voltage reference VREF cannot be written Vref; because $s can only be equal to $S [notice that no = equation sign use; because assignment operator is for inside software only; when hardware concerns; no =] WHEN |application AND can only be compiled by special design tools such as octet based compiler; hexadecimal based compiler; 32bit based compiler; 64bit based compiler; and so on ;;; ;

and some compilers are not available to public; Military top secret;

HD, hard disk; also see: high - definition, HD;

Hardware <driver> Software; WHERE Hardware is Dedicated Video Memory:; Shared System Memory:; System Video Memory:; and Total Available Graphics Memory: WHICH [4 kinds of memory] are Adapter String: Mobile Intel(R) GMA X3100; Bios Information: Intel Video BIOS; Chip Type: Mobile Intel(R) 965 Expres Chipset Family; DAC Type: Internal; WHERE Software is Vista Home Basic; WHERE driver is *;bin; *;cpl; *;dll; *;exe; *;lrc; *;sys; *;vp; and Driver Provider: is Intel Corporation; File version: is 7;14;10;1437;

In system writable: Yes OR No;

ISSCC 2008; standardization;

Layers; also see: insulating layer;

MBR [Panasonic Portable DVD / CD Player; DVD-LS* series; 2008]; A file can be encoded either by compression rate; or MBR; WHERE MBR encoded content disc contains several diff bit rates; For example *;wma ; Therefore; file XYZ;wma may look the same inside Windows Explorer; but sometimes cannot play ;;; because some devices are designed for fixed compression rate only;

MS-MT Series; SONY Memory Stick; Operating voltage; Operating environment; Dimensions (W x L x T) ; Mass;

MTP memory; multi time programmable memory; Bit Line and Word Line oriented; so that at 1 time; several bit lines can be as words ;;;

Number of blocks / plane; number of planes;

NV memory; non volatile memory; in-circuit WRITE once; e;g; CDROM;

NV memory; non volatile memory; in-circuit REWRITABLE; e;g; DVD+R;

Power consumption: High OR Low;

Power supply: Multiple OR Single;

Read speed: in ns [Nano second];

Write speed: in ms; µn; ns; ;;; ;

Storage usages:

Multi-format: in 2008; Panasonic's [ 8;5"; moonlight and sunlight display; model DVD-LS855PK ] portable DVD player can play CD; CD-R/RW; DivX [ including DivX version 6; and DivX video ]; DVD-R; DVD-R (Dual Layer); DVD-RAM; DVD-RW; DVD-Video; DVD+R; DVD+R (Dual Layer); DVD+RW; HighMAT Level; JPEG4; MP3; and WMA; With electronic skip protection; In 2008; the Panasonic portable DVD / CD player DVD-LS series can NOT play Blu-ray; HD DVD; AVCHD; DVD-Audio; DVD-RW version 1; DVD-ROM; CDV; CD-G; SACD; Photo CD; DVD-RAM [cannot remove from cartridge]; DVD-RAM 2;6GB; DVD-RAM 5;2GB; CVD with PAL; CVD with Chaoji VCD; DVCD without IEC62107; SVCD without IEC62107;

Card: in 2008; Memorex's digital photo frame [ 7" widescreen display; model MDF0738-BLK ] can play memory card or USB flash drive; WHERE memory cards are supported MMC Multi Media Card; MS Memory Stick; MS Pro Memory Stick Professional; SD Secure Digital; SDHC Secure Digital High Capacity; and xD;

Card: in 2007; 25 common formats along with USB1 OR USB2 are CF I; CF II; Magic Store; MD; MMC; MS; MS MagicGate; MS Memory Select Function; MS Duo; MS Duo MagicGate; MS Pro; MS Pro Duo; MS Pro Duo MagicGate; MS Pro Magic Gate; MS Pro Ultra II; MS ROM; RS MMC; RS MMC 4;0; SD; SM; SMC; TF; XD; XD Type H; XD Type M; ;;; ; Notice that very very low voltage; very very fast; very very high speed; very very compact by high density technology; ;;; ; technological advance products might be made by new particles in dark room environment ACT 2 stage because very cold and very dark out there in space; OFC; TFT;

Fabrication factory; some companies have their own fabrication factory(ies); some companies do not have their own; Standard and standardizing should belong to the company(ies) with their own fabrication factory(ies);

If you like to design / develop / test the cards; in 2007; Silicon Labs' USB to UART bridge WHICH provides ADC 10bit multiple channels; High speed CPU; RS232 connector; SMBus; UART interface; USB2 controller; ;;; ; SD built in as default; but ;

industry-standard storage: FCoE, Fibre Channel, InfiniBand, iSCSI, SAS, SCSI, ... ;


Drive: CD ROM drive; CD-R / RW drive; Combo drive; Compact drive; DVD ROM drive; External drive; Floppy drive; Hard drive; Internal drive; Partitioned volume drive For example:   g: ; Portable External Drive a.k.a. Portable External Hard Drive; Slim drive; USB 2 flash drive; ... ;

250GB Portable External Drive, powered by USB , in 2009, WHICH means approx. 4MB average(MP3) to be 62500 songs; 4.8MB Fine 10 Megapixel to be 52000 pictures; 8.3GB / Hour average at 720p to be 30 Hours of HD video; 5.2GB / DVD average to be 48 DVD Quality Movies;

a Myanmar way of understanding the keyword "Quality" means all kinds of electronic, WHICH are based on distance in time [also see: Multiplier]; so accordance with holes and sticks [also see: Schematic Symbols] in Ka Theory a.k.a. M Theory; also see: numerological dimension BASIC.HTML WHERE numbers are in stage by stage, numbers also are in step by step, IFF functional, Satellite DNS can be further research and develop; therefore, "Quality" means complexity regions can be reduced from uncountable to countable; ... ; Remark: operating systems have been already hardware embedded, so do configure keywords ... ;

Full range; TB storage server;

Midrange; TB storage server;

Optical storage;

... powered by USB ; WHICH means USB port is powered without separate power supply; WHICH means plug and play feature; WHICH means without AC-DC adapter; OS constraint WHICH means i.e. in 2009, IFF Windows, XP or later versions, IFF Mac, OS X 10 or later versions; speed may vary depending on quality of product is; USB power is commonly using with Portable External Drive; ... ;

SimpleDRIVE Mini, powered by , including backup software, also see: HITACHI; simpletech.com;

Toshiba USB Portable External Hard Drive, powered by , including backup software a.k.a. NTI Shadow, also see: www.toshibadirect.com; in 2009, 250GB HDDR250E03X; 320GB HDDR320E03X; 400GB HDDR400E03X; 500GB HDDR500E03X;


x has been used since CD; in 1990s; and approx; 150 MB / sec speed was 1x ;;; ; It was impossible to achieve this 1x speed by using electromagnetic drives; In common; text in 1;44 MB disk held 500+ letter size paper-pages; Disc replaces disk in portable storage; on the other hand; LASER; dark energy; pressure point [ 21st century's ] replaces electromagnetic on / off [ 20th century's ];