; ; ; ; Updated in 2565 : on 2021 : 7 : 16 : Memory : Memory and / or Storage ;

I F F Z-Distribution, dimensional ( 2 * 6) ... ; e.g. space's depth in (2 * 6) momentum;
I F F side-by-side, dimensional ( 2 * 5) in common, five; memory methods e.g. address, offsetting of detailed Val address, physical address, ref address, ... are all defined by Time e.g. 1 year is like unlimited memory and storage in the Internet, 1 month is like billing cycles of banking systems, 1 week is like 7 days, BD is almost 1 day if compare to DVD in few hours, CD has been standard 150 x of IDE (approx. 700 MB) d o k o WHERE 1.44 MB can keep 12-size default font's approx. 500 pages of information to print out

Approx. 157 memory & storage types / usages available to read:

Name Enhance able Portable Hardware; Software Remark   CCD Resolution Technology;
;;;       ;;;
k u r u k u r u DEE D G P C P , Directional Gravity Pressure Connector Port, for each G D C, Gravity Dimension Computer;
4LCFC Yes (2√10) a.k.a. 40 < r o > 15x15, 23x23, ... ; 4 layered; both SQ mm and Rectangle mm^2; for G D C (Processor) processes ... ;
9801_AquaZCS Yes 99x99; SQ ones, a.k.a. squared ones; Bio Clock; for Gene Therapy System;
9801_Default Yes 99x99;
+R DL Recordable DVD-V only; till 2008;

NOT recordable *;Div X; *;jpeg; *;mp3; *;mpeg4; *;wma;

+R / +RW Recordable DVD-V only; till 2008;

NOT recordable *;Div X; *;jpeg; *;mp3; *;mpeg4; *;wma;

AG AND flash memory [www ; H I T A C H I ; com / New / c news / 050617.html ]; Multilevel cell technology; BL switch solves multilevel programming problems; Ordinary memory's a cell can hold 0 and 1; AG AND flash memory's a cell can hold 00; 01; 10; and 11; BL becomes local BL and global BL; Also see: NEC's duo binary; AG; Assist Gates ;
AMB Hardware In 2005; NEC's AM B can connect DDR2 533; 667; 800;
BD B L U -ray Disc; One of the optical disks; Also see: HD DUD; [www; c e a t e c ;com; 2005]
BD-R Hardware In 2008; 25GB BD-R B L U -Ray disc are available as 2x speed; approx; 5 times bigger storage capacity than DVD;
Cache No; because of embedding No Hardware Processor oriented and embedded memory; Latches of processor are classified as L1; L2; L3; ;;; memories;
CAM memory In networking; router's memory with search functions for IPv6 internet generation; Also see: Hitachi
CD Disc compact disk; CD; CD-R (LG usage: (CLV) (ZCLV) (;;;)); CD ROM; CD R W; JPEG CD; MP3 CD; Video CD; S AC D; WMA CD; ;;; ; Multi-session CD;
CD ROM No; because of constraint track Yes Disc Non-volatile; Storage; Commonly known as CD; (CD (R) (R W)); (Video (V CD) (S V CD));
CD-R / R W Disc Recordable *; Div X; *; jpeg; *;mp3; *;mpeg4; *;wma;

NOT recordable DVD-V; DVD-V R; ;;; ; 

CF; Compact Flash Yes; but higher density separate module needed Yes Hardware Non-volatile memory; Type I; II; ;;;; Compatibility with: Micro drive; Compact I / O card; Compact LAN card; Compact MODEM card; www . san disk . com; Media card reader needed; Also see: Canon; Nikon;
CM OS RAM No; because of embedding No Hardware Also see: C CD; If RAM becomes C CD alike "converting light into electrical signals" and then computers must be classified into what kind of ;;; ;
Crypto Stick Yes Hardware USB2 flash memory;
D DR Hardware

(D DR (PC2100 266MHz) (PC2700 333MHz) (PC3200 400MHz) (PC4000 500MHz)); Double Data Rate where 1 Data Out time in ns contains 2 data patterns;
DDR200 Memory bus speed: 200 MHz; PC 1600 chip; Support up to 1;6 G bps bandwidth;
DDR266 Memory bus speed: 266 MHz; PC 2100 chip; Support up to 2;1 G bps bandwidth;
DDR333 Memory bus speed: 333 MHz; PC 2700 chip; Support up to 2;7 G bps bandwidth;
D DR SD RAM Yes;  but higher density separate module needed No Hardware D I MM; Double data rate memory;
DDR2 Hardware

(DDR2 (PC3200 400MHz) (PC3200 E CC 400MHz) (PC4200 533MHz) (PC4300 E CC 533MHz) (PC5400 667MHz) (800MHz) (;;;)); 1;8V; Also see: 3D transistor;
DDR2 Hardware In 2009, available modules via Toshiba . direct . com; are DDR2-533Mhz; DDR2-667Mhz; DDR2-800Mhz;
DDR3 Hardware In 2007; 4 bit pre-fetched DDR2; 8 bit pre-fetched DDR3 data rates are in testing stage for frequency development;
DDR3 In 2009, available modules via Toshiba . direct . com; is DDR3-1066Mhz;
DDR3-800; DDR3-1066; DDR3-1333 Hardware In 2008; 1;5V; So D I MM for notebooks; R D I MM for servers; 1333Mbps is -1333; 1066Mbps is -1066; 800Mbps is -800; Also see: Samsung Semiconductor;
DDS Hardware Also see: (Media backup storage (SONY ((4mm (DDS (2) (3) (4)) (DAT72))) (8mm (Mammoth (1) (2) (A IT 1) (A IT 2) (A IT 3)) (DL T (IV) (Super)) (T r a van (NS20) ))) (MAXELL (U l t r i u m (1) (2)) (Zip)) (SL R) );
D I MM Yes;  but higher density separate module needed No Hardware In common; SO D I MM is for Notebook; (SO D I MM (PC100 100MHz) (PC133 133MHz) (PC2100 266 MHz) (PC2700 333MHz));
DMA No; because it is algorithm No Software If necessary; attach to DMA's bus; or extend the algorithm;
D M V T No No Hardware and Software
DRAM       DRAM can hold 4 times more data than RAM; Also see: DRAM vs. SRAM;
DRAM; Synchronous Yes No Hardware SL DRAM AND R DRAM; also see: 1997 model memory tester from www . ad van test . com;
DVD   Disc Digital Versatile Disc; In 2004; NEC manufactured 3G HD DVD;

In 2005; L G produces 2;4x OR 4x OR 8x OR 16x WRITE to DVD +R; 1x OR 2x OR 4x OR 8x WRITE to DVD -R; 2;4x OR 4x WRITE to DVD +R W; 1x OR 2x OR 4x WRITE to DVD -R W; 2x OR 3x OR 5x WRITE to DVD RAM; 4x OR 8x OR 16x WRITE to CD-R CL V; 24x OR 32x OR 40x WRITE to CD-R Z CL V; 4x OR 8x OR 10x WRITE to CD-RW CL V; 16x OR 24x WRITE to CD-RW Z CL V; READ varies depending on media type; Also see: L G 's CD DVD spec; dual voltage disk;

DVD +R   Yes Disc In 2008; DVD9(8152MB); DVD5(4483MB); ;;; ; multi-session is for re-writable later;
DVD-R DL     Disc Recordable DVD-V; and DVD-V R only; till 2008;

NOT recordable *;Div X; *;jpeg; *;mp3; *;mpeg4; *;wma; till 2008;

DVD-R / R W     Disc Recordable DVD-V; DVD-V R; *;Div X; *;jpeg; *;mp3; *;mpeg4; till 2008;

NOT recordable *;wma; till 2008;

DVD RAM     Disc


Disc; manufactured by Panasonic; 2004; 4;7GB; Rewritable;
DVD-RAM       Recordable DVD-V R; *;Div X; *;jpeg; *;mp3; *;mpeg4; till 2008;

NOT recordable *;wma; DVD-V; till 2008;

DVD ROM No Yes Disc In 1996; DVD ROM; by red laser; high power semi-conductor; system was developed by Sharp; Commonly known as DVD; (DVD (+R) (-R) (+R W) (-R W)); Mini DVD;
D V M A No No Hardware and Software  
D V R       Recorder; Digital Video Recorder; D V R = DVD + VCR;
E A ROM No No Hardware  
EDO Yes No Hardware Popular and commonly used memory in open architecture era of PC computing in 1980s and early 1990s; (EDO (60ns))
EDO DRAM Faster than DRAM;
EDO RAM Yes No Hardware Extended Data Out Random Access Memory; Faster than RAM; Triton chip-sets from Intel were designed to take advantage of EDO ROM;
E E MS No No Software Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification; 64 pages per frame;
E E P ROM Yes Yes Hardware Electrically Erasable PROM; Serial Flash E E P ROM; Also see: www . Sanyo . com / semiconductors flash memory;
EMS No No Software Expanded Memory Specification; 4 pages per frame;
EPROM No Yes Hardware Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory; Only by ultraviolet light; It can be reprogrammed;
Extended Memory Yes No Hardware 16TB; SX6 super computer; NEC;
F C RAM www . Toshiba . com; 2004; Network application; Better than D DR SD RAM; and HS S RAM;
Fe RAM Yes No Hardware Ferroelectric RAM; Also see: smart SD;
Flash Memory No No Hardware In 1997; flash memory; built-in to assist 16 bit micro-controllers; by Sharp;
Flash Memory Yes Yes Hardware In 2004; TDK's GB Driver RA4 N AND flash memory controller [Approximate dimension: 0;8in x 0;8in x 0;2in] can control ((8GB memory) (CF2 Compact Flash compatible) (64Mb~16Gb N AN D flash memory) (;;;)     ); Also see: www . TDK . co . jp; Non-volatile memory;
Flash Bank Memory Yes Yes Hardware Sanyo's usage;
Flash S SD Hardware In 2007; s am sung s s d . com 's Flash S SD; shock resistance; -25~85C; <24s system boot; >80MB / s WRITE; >100MB / s READ; 0;5W; ;;; ; For notebook computer;
FRAM Yes No Hardware Ferroelectric RAM;
H H D Hardware H H D; Hybrid Hard Drive; Also see: NOR Interface;
HS S RAM www . Toshiba . com; 2004;
K an guru Micro Hardware USB flash memory;
LIM EMS No No Software
Low Power SD RAM; LP SD RAM www . Toshiba .com; 2004;
Low Power SRAM; LP SRAM www . Toshiba .com; 2004;
L T M Long Term Memory; Also see: S T M;
Mask ROM No No Hardware Non-volatile memory; Also see: sharp-world . com / products / device / about / technology / flash-01;html; 2004;
M C H No No
Memory Stick Yes Yes Hardware Non-volatile memory; Magic Gate; Media card reader needed; Also see: SONY;
Memory Stick Duo Also see: SONY;
Memory Stick Micro Hardware In 2005; Sony & San disk jointly develop Memory Stick Micro M2 format; 32G max storage; Interface;
Memory Stick Pro Hardware

Media card reader needed; Also see: SONY;
Memory Stick PRO-HG Duo        
Memory Stick Pro Duo        
MG Yes Yes
Micro drives Media card reader needed;
Micro SD Hardware External memory; used in G S M; In 2006; H D D Embedded > 8GB;
MM C; Multimedia Memory Card                     Hardware www . s am sung . com; 2004; Media card reader needed;
MM C micro Hardware External memory; used in CDMA;
MM U No No Hardware and Software
MRAM     Magnetic Random Access Memory; Also see: Magnet;
M RAM Yes No Hardware Magneto-resistive Random Access Memory;
M ROM       Mask Read-only-memory;
Multi-format / multi-function non-volatile memory device       Multi-format / multi-function non-volatile reader / writer translator / converter are beyond a Myanmar's knowledge ;
N AND Flash       www . Toshiba . com ; 2004; 300mm technology;
NOR Flash       www . Toshiba . com ; 2004;
N U M A     Hardware Automatic detection by Oracle 10g; 2004;
Parameter RAM       Apple's CM OS RAM; maintained by battery;
PC Card ATA       www . Toshiba . com ; 2004;
P CM       Phase Change Memory; 2008;
P CM C I A Yes No Hardware  
PC RAM     Hardware Phase Change RAM; E E TIMES; July; 2007;
P L A       Embedded memory;
Portable mobile hard drive     Hardware Portable storage; In 2005; 40GB; 80GB; drives available; USB connection; No AC / DC adapter; Light weight design; Fingerprint authentication; Also see: www . l ac i e . com;
PRAM     Hardware Phase change Random Access Memory
PROM No No Hardware Programmable Read Only Memory; PROM can be categorized into 2 different types: such as EPROM and EEPROM;
PSEUDO SRAM       www . Toshiba . com ; 2004;
P S RAM       www . Toshiba . com ; 2004; Asynchronous;
Q DR II SRAM       www . s am sung . com; In 2004; world highest capacity SRAM is 72Mb; developed by Samsung; For network applications; Operate at 300MHz; F B G A;  
RAM Yes No Hardware In LSI's either gate-array or embedded array design; NEC classifies RAM into following categories: Compiled-type asynchronous 1 port; Compiled-type asynchronous 2 port[1W; and 1R]; Compiled-type RAM embedded synchronous 1 port; Compiled-type RAM embedded synchronous 2 ports; Compiled-type synchronous 1 port; Compiled-type synchronous 2 ports[1W; and 1R]; Compiled-type synchronous dual port; Bit-word fixed type with 1 port; Bit-word fixed type with 2 ports[1W; and 1R]; ;;; ; Random Access Memory;
R D I MM Hardware So D I MM for notebook; R D I MM for server;
R D RAM Yes No Hardware Ram bus by Motorola's C-5; (RD RAM (PC800 800MHz)); Support up to 3;2 G bps bandwidth;
Re RAM Resistance Random Access Memory;
ROM; Read Only Memory No No Hardware In LSI's either gate-array or embedded array design; NEC classifies RAM into following categories: ROM synchronous; ROM asynchronous; Also see: RAM; Read Only Memory; Once write; data become permanent;
SAM Yes No Hardware and Software  
SAT A Yes Yes Hardware 2;5" SAT A; S F F and S AS are a hard disk drive storage type / usage;
Scratchpad RAM       Scratchpad Random Access Memory; CPU's memory; register alike;
SD     Hardware


www . Toshiba . com ; 2004; Also see: smart SD; Media card reader needed; Nikon; SD; Secure Digital;
SD H C memory card     Hardware Multi-use Terminal Cable;
SD X C memory card     Hardware Multi-use Terminal Cable; for still images; for movies;
SD RAM Yes No Hardware D I MM; SD RAM is less expensive than SS RAM; (SD RAM (PC66 66MHz) (PC100 100MHz) (PC133 133MHz)); Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory; Faster clock speed than DRAM; Burst technique provided DRAM predicts address of next memory location to be accessed;
Secure Digital Yes Yes Hardware Non-volatile memory;
SIMM Yes No Hardware SIMM; (SIMM (EDO) (Fast Page)); Single Inline Memory Module; SRAM were used to cache; Made of flip-flop;
Smart Media; SM Yes Yes Hardware Non-volatile memory; www . Toshiba . com ; 2004; Media card reader needed;
smart SD Non-volatile Fe RAM; Panasonic; 2004; (smart SD (SD) (Controller) (Antenna) (Fe RAM) (;;;));
SO D I MM Hardware D I MM; So D I MM for notebook; RD I MM for server;
SONY Micro Vault Tiny No Yes Hardware In 2006; 1 ~ 4 GB; USB2 drive;
SRAM; Static RAM Yes No Hardware Also see: Motorola's C-5; B M U; (Toshiba ( SRAM ((High Speed Asynchronous SRAM) (High Speed Synchronous SRAM) (Low Power SRAM) (Pseudo SRAM)))); In 2004; Hitachi's SRAM cell is made of 4 FD-SO I; Also see: DRAM vs. SRAM;
SS RAM Yes No Hardware Synchronous SRAM; Also see: MM C / AM CC's n P* N P U
S T M       Short Term Memory; Also see: L T M;
T I MM RAM 3 inline memory module; testing gravity dimension computer, Using manOR s e n, working with basic in numerological dimension;
USB Yes Yes Hardware In 2006; USB2 flash memory can be stored up to 64GB; but 5000+USD for a little stick;
USB Credit Card Size Flash Drive No Yes Hardware In 2008; 32 / 64 / 128 / 256 / 512 MB drives; 1 / 2 / 4 GB drives; with 4 process poly-plastic layered color printing [also see: Mitsubishi] available by; www . silicon maps . com;
USB 2 Bootable External Drive Yes Yes Hardware 4GB; PnP; MAC OS X; Win 2000; Win XP; Credit card size; Portable; in 2006 retail price < 100 US D; Also can use as external storage;
Virtual Memory Yes; but OS level system configuration needed No Hardware and Software A storage physical portion of hard disk is used to swap between physical memory and hard disk's storage; *; s w p; *; t m p; ;;; files are commonly used; While processing; if physical memory does not have enough memory space; and then virtual memory is used;   
V RAM       Video Random Access Memory; Processor provided separated pins video circuitry; Used of V RAM enhanced faster video computing;
W RAM Yes No Software  
x D Picture Card Yes Yes Hardware Non-volatile memory; Also see: Fuji film;
XD R DRAM     Hardware In 2005; Samsung produces world fastest XD R DRAM by 256MB modules; DR SL;
Xi Meta ND AS     Hardware


Storage; Net Disk; 10 / 100; USB2;
X MS No No Software Extended Memory Specification; In a session; Windows' conventional memory; EMS; X MS and MS DOS DPMI memories are adjustable; Also see: Windows' properties;
Wide bandwidth D DR DRAM No No Hardware In 2006; 3;3 ~ 5 ns; 2;5 ~ 3;3 V due to SiO2 constraint; S C P stack; F B G A array; ;;; ; Memory IC; Also see: E t r on;
W RAM       Windows Random Access Memory; In video adapter; W RAM was designed for repainting screen;

Also see: Bus Connector and Port;

e.g. WHERE BL V (s) are recording into memory cells and W L control V (s) are requiring WHEN (@ if symbol, a.k.a. at) WHERE the memory cells;

In early age computing arena, memory was deployed volatile only, and memories were classified static or random;

Commonly; after year 2000 ; memory has been used both volatile and non-volatile [storage + memory]; "volatile only" means WHILE power is on, temporary memory storage space available to store / to keep / to retrieve / to process instructions, also see: assembly mnemonics ... , and WHILE power is off, those memory storage spaces become unavailable; "Non-volatile" means permanent AND temporary memory storage space available regardless of whether power is on or off; Sometime;

memory and storage are file system dependent AND independent;

(Overview of memory: (R / W memory OR RAM (DRAM) (SRAM))  (ROM (Mask ROM; also called Fuse ROM) (P ROM (E P ROM) (EE P ROM)) (Flash Memory) (F RAM)));

IFF testing, add your define memory into above table; defining your own OEM module into above table by adding a row simply; automatic adjusting bus' speed, e.g. 1 second EDO RAM with 32 KB, e.g. 1 pi co second TI MM with 8 TB, e.g. 2D green color I r o RAM with 1 TB; your newly testing HARDWARE memory module, working with basic in numerological dimension;

After reading above table; notice that storage and memory cannot be separated; and they are similar to each other; But the following might be different:

( Storage (Slower (Read) (Write)) (Lesser cost) (Larger volume)                     )
( Memory (Faster (Read) (Write)) (Higher cost) (Smaller volume)                     )

CD vs. DVD; SONY Standard

in 2008; SONY DVD/CD Rewritable Drive's standard
Disc Read Write
8 cm CD y y y y
8 cm DVD y y  
12 cm CD y y y y
12 cm DVD y y y y
CD-DA 16x-CAV  
CD-DA D A E 48x-CAV2  
CD-R 48x-CAV2 48x-CAV2
CD-ROM 48x-CAV2  
CD-RW 40x-CAV 4x
CD-RW High Speed 40x-CAV 10x
CD-RW Ultra Speed 40x-CAV 24x-XCLV
CD-RW Ultra Speed Plus 40x-CAV 32x-ZCLV
DVD +R 4x 16x-CAV 4x
DVD +R 8x 16x-CAV 12x-CAV
DVD +R 16x 16x-CAV 20x-CAV
DVD +R Double Layer 2;4x 12x-CAV 4x
DVD +R Double Layer 8x 12x-CAV 10x-ZCLV
DVD +R Double Layer 16x 12x-CAV 12x-ZCLV
DVD +R W 12x-CAV 2;4x
DVD +R W 4x 12x-CAV 4x
DVD +R W High Speed 12x-CAV 8x-ZCLV
DVD -R 4x 16x-CAV 4x
DVD -R 8x 16x-CAV 12x-CAV
DVD -R 16x 16x-CAV 20x-CAV
DVD -R Dual Layer 4x 12x-CAV 4x
DVD -R Dual Layer 8x 12x-CAV 10x-ZCLV
DVD -R Dual Layer 12x 12x-CAV 12x-ZCLV
DVD -R W 2x 12x-CAV 2x
DVD -R W 4x 12x-CAV 4x
DVD -R W 6x 12x-CAV 6x
DVD -R AM 5x 5x 5x
DVD -R AM 12x 12x-PCAV 12x-PCAV
DVD-Video 6x-CAV  
 2 default is 40x; I F F Parallel Time testing; also see: 2V; V V; so called W; www; www; this DOMAIN; net; i; e; net set up;




[www . Hitachi . com / News / c news / 050615; html]
  To maintain data; DRAM needs refresh operation periodically;  To maintain data; SRAM does not need refresh operation periodically;
  Each cell is made of 1 MOS AND 1 capacitor; To retain data; constant V AND V t h are used; 
Single cell: READ 1 binary data is 1 bit in 1 cell; 1 binary data is 1 bit in 1 cell;
Single cell: WRITE 1 OR 0;  
Twin cell 2 binary data are in 2 cell;  
Twin cell: READ 2 cell are read  
Twin cell: READ 3 times longer retention-time than single array;  
Twin cell: WRITE 1 AND 0;   

M RAM; Magnetic Random Access Memory's semiconductor layers; [E WEEK; 6 / 16 / 2003]

Electrode; top layer; Bit Line
Ferromagnetic layer
Tunneling insulator layer
Ferromagnetic layer
Coupling layer
Ferromagnetic layer
Anti ferromagnetic layer
Electrode; bottom layer

In 2004; non-volatile memory module sizes are: 128MB; 256MB; 512MB; 1GB; 2GB; 4GB; ;;; ; And common media format may varies OR just brand names may varies among non-volatile memories as CF I; CF II; FireWire pass-through front port; Memory Stick; Memory Stick Pro; Magic Gate Memory Stick; Micro Drive; MM C; SD; SM; XD; and ;;; ;


Memory IC vs. System IC:

System IC; a chip; a controller; product specific chip; In common; not portable; not able to enhance; but "configurable" interface; On the other hand; memory IC; a chip; product unspecific chip; In common; portable; able to enhance; and "programmable" interface; In an era between PCB and F PC ;;; ; both memory IC and system IC can be built-in; embedded; ;;; ;


Memory usages     Also see: register map;

2010 OR 2554, SONY, LTO;

2008 ; NTSC Signal system: Panasonic disc standard are; either 8cm = 3" or 12cm = 5";

                    CD; CD-R / R W including CD-DA; Div X; High MAT Level 2; JPEG; MPEG4; MP3; S V CD; V CD; and WMA; Div X is Div X video; Div X media files; DivX6; and its max contents are the same as MP3 [ therefore max; 4000 Mixed Contents with 400 groups: ]; High MAT Level 2 is audio and image; JPEG is Ex if V e r 2;1 JPEG Baseline files; and its picture resolutions vary between 160x120 ~ 6144x4096; MP3 is either MPEG-1 Layer 3; or MPEG-2 Layer 3; and both discs' maximum contents are 4000 audio; movie contents; and picture [a.k.a. Mixed Contents]; and both discs' maximum contents are 400 groups:; MPEG4 data can be recorded by Panasonic SD multi cameras; and MPEG4 data also can be recorded by standard chipset DVD recorders [ for example: AS F standard SD VIDEO specification; MPEG4 Simple Profile video system; G;726 audio system; ;;; ]; S V CD is IEC62107 standard; WMA Windows Media Audio version 9;0 L3; and its maximum contents are the same as MP3 [ therefore max; 4000 Mixed Contents with 400 groups: ];

                    +R DL is Video; +R/R W is also Video;

                    DVD is DVD-Video; and DVD is also Div X;

                    DVD-R is Div X; and DVD-R is also DVD-Video; and DVD-R is also DVD-V R [which exclude C P R M]; and DVD-R is also JPEG; and DVD-R is also MP3; and DVD-R is also MPEG4;

                    DVD-R DL is DVD-Video; and DVD-V R [exclude CPRM];

                    DVD-RAM is Div X; and DVD-RAM is also DVD-V R which excludes C P R M; and DVD-RAM is also JPEG; and DVD-RAM is also MP3; and DVD-RAM is also MPEG4;

                    DVD-R W is DivX; and DVD-R W is also DVD-Video; and DVD-R W is also DVD-V R [which exclude C P R M]; and DVD-R W is also JPEG; and DVD-R W is also MP3; and DVD-R W is also MPEG4;

2007 ; WIZ net Ethernet to Parallel ; 4KB internal EE P ROM; 32KB external SRAM; 128KB programmable Flash ROM; ;;; ;

;AV I;



;MP3; Panasonic's referenced sampling frequencies are

            I F F CD-R/R W 8; 11;02; 12; 16; 22;05; 24; 32; 44;1; 48 kHz

            I F F DVD-R/R W a.k.a. DVD-R OR DVD-R W 11;02; 12; 22;05; 24; 44;1; 48 kHz

            I F F DVD-RAM 11;02; 12; 22;05; 24; 44;1; 48 kHz

            I F F with ID3 tag; some devices cannot play *;mp3;

;MPEG4; also see: ; AS F;



Application purposes: Cache / PDA; Digital camera; Game; ID card; Main memory; Memory card; Smart card; Solid state disk;

BL; Bit Line AND OR W L; Word Line; In memory cell; BL AND OR WL which means [2N where N bits addressed row] AND OR [2M where M bits addressed column] in 2D;

Block size; Page size;

Buffer: mostly use in programming; When using buffer; designers/engineers/programmers must make sure each buffer's storage limit [Bounded Buffer; buffer over run; buffer overflow; buffer underflow; ;;; ] ; In common; at heap; or at a run time; when a program needs temporary storage; threshold voltage must be referenced memory addresses as its needed buffers;

CD; in 2008; Signal system: NTSC's CD audio: 4 Hz ~ 20 kHz; NTSC's DVD (linear audio): 4 Hz ~ 22 kHz a.k.a. 48 kHz sampling AND 4 Hz ~ 44 kHz a.k.a. 96 kHz sampling;

Cell structure: 1T; 1 cell structure characteristics by 1 transistor [i.e. Flash]; 1T-1C; 1 cell structure characteristics by 1 transistor [i.e.  DRAM]; 6T; 1 cell structure characteristics by 6 transistors [i.e. SRAM];

Cell density: High OR Low;

Cell type; Also see: type=exe;

Characteristics of memory as s in time vs. °C in temperature;

Cost; Also calculate: cost per bit;

C T A; ... ;

              C T A
            C T A ;
          C T A ;  
        C T A ;    
      C T A ;      
    C T A ;        
  C T A ;          
C T A ;            

C T A♯; C T L♯; ... ;

              C T L
            C T L ;
          C T L ;  
        C T L ;    
      C T L ;      
    C T L ;        
  C T L ;          
C T L ;            

C T A♯; C T L♯; R T L♯; ... ;

Data refresh operation: Require OR Not-require;

Data volatility: Yes OR No;

DDR2 vs. DDR3

Meta DDR Type
# of Bank 512Mb: 4bank 512Mb / 1Gb / 2Gb / 4Gb / 8Gb: 8bank
# of Bank 1Gb / 2Gb: 8bank  
Burst Length BL = 4     4bit prefetch BL = 4     8bit prefetch
Burst Length BL = 8     4bit prefetch BL = 8     8bit pretetch
Data rate -400     400Mbps -800     800Mbps
Data rate -800     800Mbps -1600     1600Mbps
Driver Calibration Off-Chip Z Q pin
Interface SSTL_18     1;8V s to S time SSTL_15     1;5V s to S time
O D T Yes Yes
Package B G A     60bga 4     60bga 8 B G A     78bga 4     78bga 8
Package B G A     84bga 16 B G A     96bga 16
Reset Not available Available
Source Sync; Bidirectional     full duplex Bidirectional     full duplex
Source Sync; single / diff ;option differential     default
System assumption 2slot     4load 2slot     4load
V d d/V d d q 1;8V 1;5V
For further info;

www . s am sung . com / global / business / semiconductor / products / dram / Products_DDR3SDRAM;html


Disc; if RPM increases without timing; disc (s) can explode; if 52x disc is at 150x test RPM may explode; Sometimes; configuring incorrectly of motherboard's multiplexer (s) can cause such explosion; 

Endurance: High OR Low;

GDDR3     GDDR4     GDDR5; also see: AMD; Intel; N v id I a; Q I m on d a; ;;; ;

Meta Memory Type; 2008~
Burst length 4 OR 8 8 8
Data clocking Synchronous RD Source AND  AND WR  Synchronous RD Source AND  AND WR  Synchronous CDR AND RD AND Source AND WR 
Data rate 1000MT / s ~ 2000MT / s 1600MT / s ~ 3200MT / s 3200MT / s ~ 5000MT / s
DRAM density 256Mb ~ 1Gb 512Mb 512Mb ~ 2Gb
DRAM PLL / DLL *;dll *;dll PLL OR *;dll
External V reg; supply not available to public not available to public VPP
I/O organization 32 32 16 AND 32
Interface training not available to public Controller: RD OR W R Controller: AD R OR RD OR WCK2CK OR W R
Interface training DRAM supported training protocol
Pre fetch scheme 4bit 8bit 8bit
V D D/V D D Q 1;8V / 1;8V 1;5V / 1; 5V AND 1;8V / 1;8V 1;5V / 1; 5V
V REF v ref v ref c   v ref d internal / external v ref c   internal / external v ref d
V REF level 0;7 V D D Q 0;7 V D D Q 0;7 V D D Q OR 0;5 V D D Q
I F F keyword; context sensitive; e.g. voltage reference V REF cannot be written V ref; because $s can only be equal to $S [notice that no = equation sign use; because assignment operator is for inside software only; when hardware concerns; no =] WHEN |application AND can only be compiled by special design tools such as octet based compiler; hexadecimal based compiler; 32bit based compiler; 64bit based compiler; and so on ;;; ;

and some compilers are not available to public; Military top secret;

HD, hard disk; also see: high - definition, HD;

Hardware <driver> Software; WHERE Hardware is Dedicated Video Memory:; Shared System Memory:; System Video Memory:; and Total Available Graphics Memory: WHICH [4 kinds of memory] are Adapter String: Mobile Intel (R) GMA X3100; Bios Information: Intel Video BIOS; Chip Type: Mobile Intel (R) 965 Exp re s Chipset Family; D AC Type: Internal; WHERE Software is Vista Home Basic; WHERE driver is *;bin; *; CPL; *; DLL; *;exe; *;l RC; *;sys; *;VP; and Driver Provider: is Intel Corporation; File version: is 7;14;10;1437;

In system writable: Yes OR No;

IS S CC 2008; standardization;

Layers; also see: insulating layer;

MB R [Panasonic Portable DVD / CD Player; DVD-LS* series; 2008]; A file can be encoded either by compression rate; or MB R; WHERE MB R encoded content disc contains several diff bit rates; For example *;wma ; Therefore; file XYZ ;wma may look the same inside Windows Explorer; but sometimes cannot play ;;; because some devices are designed for fixed compression rate only;

MS-MT Series; SONY Memory Stick; Operating voltage; Operating environment; Dimensions (W x L x T) ; Mass;

M T P memory; multi time programmable memory; Bit Line and Word Line oriented; so that at 1 time; several bit lines can be as words ;;;

Number of blocks / plane; number of planes;

NV memory; non volatile memory; in-circuit WRITE once; e.g. CD ROM;

NV memory; non volatile memory; in-circuit REWRITABLE; e.g. DVD +R;

Power consumption: High OR Low;

Power supply: Multiple OR Single;

Read speed: in ns [Nano second];

Write speed: in ms; µn; ns; ;;; ;

Storage usages:

Multi-format: in 2008; Panasonic's [ 8;5"; moonlight and sunlight display; model DVD-LS855PK ] portable DVD player can play CD; CD-R/R W; Div X [ including Div X version 6; and Div X video ]; DVD-R; DVD-R (Dual Layer); DVD-RAM; DVD-R W; DVD-Video; DVD +R; DVD +R (Dual Layer); DVD +R W; High MAT Level; JPEG4; MP3; and WMA; With electronic skip protection; In 2008; the Panasonic portable DVD / CD player DVD-LS series can NOT play B L U-ray; HD DVD; AV CH D; DVD-Audio; DVD-R W version 1; DVD-ROM; CD V; CD-G; S AC D; Photo CD; DVD-RAM [cannot remove from cartridge]; DVD-RAM 2;6GB; DVD-RAM 5;2GB; C V D with PAL; C V D with C h a o j I V CD; D V CD without IEC62107; S V CD without IEC62107;

Card: in 2008; Memorex's digital photo frame [ 7" widescreen display; model MDF0738-BLK ] can play memory card or USB flash drive; WHERE memory cards are supported MM C Multi Media Card; MS Memory Stick; MS Pro Memory Stick Professional; SD Secure Digital; SD H C Secure Digital High Capacity; and x D;

Card: in 2007; 25 common formats along with USB1 OR USB2 are CF I; CF II; Magic Store; MD; MM C; MS; MS Magic Gate; MS Memory Select Function; MS Duo; MS Duo Magic Gate; MS Pro; MS Pro Duo; MS Pro Duo Magic Gate; MS Pro Magic Gate; MS Pro Ultra II; MS ROM; RS MM C; RS MM C 4;0; SD; SM; SMC; T F; XD; XD Type H; XD Type M; ;;; ; Notice that very very low voltage; very very fast; very very high speed; very very compact by high density technology; ;;; ; technological advance products might be made by new particles in dark room environment ACT 2 stage because very cold and very dark out there in space; OF C; T FT;

Fabrication factory; some companies have their own fabrication factory (I e s); some companies do not have their own; Standard and standardizing should belong to the company (I e s) with their own fabrication factory (I e s);

If you like to design / develop / test the cards; in 2007; Silicon Labs' USB to U ART bridge WHICH provides ADC 10bit multiple channels; High speed CPU; RS232 connector; S M Bus; U ART interface; USB2 controller; ;;; ; SD built in as default; but ;

industry-standard storage: F C o E, F I b re Channel, In F in I Band, I SCSI, S AS, SCSI, ... ;


Drive: CD ROM drive; CD-R / RW drive; Combo drive; Compact drive; DVD ROM drive; External drive; Floppy drive; Hard drive; Internal drive; Partitioned volume drive For example:   g: ; Portable External Drive a.k.a. Portable External Hard Drive; Slim drive; USB 2 flash drive; ... ;

250GB Portable External Drive, powered by USB , in 2009, WHICH means approx. 4MB average(MP3) to be 62500 songs; 4.8MB Fine 10 Mega pixel to be 52000 pictures; 8.3GB / Hour average at 720p to be 30 Hours of HD video; 5.2GB / DVD average to be 48 DVD Quality Movies;

a Myanmar way of understanding the keyword "Quality" means all kinds of electronic, WHICH are based on distance in time [also see: Multiplier]; so accordance with holes and sticks [also see: Schematic Symbols] in Ka Theory a.k.a. M Theory; also see: numerological dimension BASIC .HTML WHERE numbers are in stage by stage, numbers also are in step by step, I F F functional, Satellite DNS can be further research and develop; therefore, "Quality" means complexity regions can be reduced from uncountable to countable; ... ; Remark: operating systems have been already hardware embedded, so do configure keywords ... ;

Full range; TB storage server;

Midrange; TB storage server;

Optical storage;

... powered by USB ; WHICH means USB port is powered without separate power supply; WHICH means plug and play feature; WHICH means without AC-DC adapter; OS constraint WHICH means i.e. in 2009, I F F Windows, XP or later versions, I F F Mac, OS X 10 or later versions; speed may vary depending on quality of product is; USB power is commonly using with Portable External Drive; ... ;

Simple DRIVE Mini, powered by , including backup software, also see: HITACHI; simple tech . com;

Toshiba USB Portable External Hard Drive, powered by , including backup software a.k.a. NT I Shadow, also see: www . Toshiba direct . com; in 2009, 250GB HDDR250E03X; 320GB HDDR320E03X; 400GB HDDR400E03X; 500GB HDDR500E03X;


x has been used since CD; in 1990s; and approx; 150 MB / sec speed was 1x ;;; ; It was impossible to achieve this 1x speed by using electromagnetic drives; In common; text in 1;44 MB disk held 500+ letter size paper-pages; Disc replaces disk in portable storage; on the other hand; LASER; dark energy; pressure point [ 21st century's ] replaces electromagnetic on / off [ 20th century's ];